Category: canberra history


Ngarigo and Ngunnawal word lists

June 25th, 2014 — 1:38pm

I find it is impossible not to feel a huge sense of loss when seeing how fragmentary are the records of Aboriginal languages from South East Australia. Even today Aboriginal languages are still slipping away very rapidly. Why is this not seen as a cultural emergency? Why has the task always fallen on so few people to rescue Aboriginal languages from oblivion?

I was having trouble finding a Ngarigo word list on the internet so have transcribed the one out of “Victorian Languages a Late Survey”* by LA Hercus, and put it beside the Ngunnawal word list that is in RH Mathews’ work The Wiradyuri and Other Languages of New South Wales for purposes of comparison. The languages are usually said to be quite similar, although there is still plenty of difference between them.

A language is the ultimate poem, developed by its speakers over centuries, with a thousand intimate connections to the landscape and culture which it reflects. These few words are nearly all that is left from the first great work of literature, the original poem, which was created by the Ngarigo and Ngunnawal people of the Canberra region and the high country of NSW and Victoria.

nb. I have replaced “ng” with “ŋ” in the Mathews list. An excel version of this table is here: Languages – Ngarigo and Ngunnawal.

English Ngunnawal Ngarigo
 
PEOPLE
 
A man murrin marinj
Husband ma-uŋ 
Clever man / doctor muyuluŋ  budira
Youth warrumbul 
Boy bubal  burubal
Elder brother dyiddyaŋ djidjaŋ
Younger brother gugan  duŋan
Elder sister dhadduŋ  ŋaman
Younger sister gulwan  galan
A woman bullan  balan
Wife man 
Girl mullaŋan  malaŋan
Child (neuter) gudha  wanj
Children gudhaiar
Father bubaŋ
Mother ŋadjan
Wild man/killer dulugal
Bearded man djira-wadj
Old man djiriban
Policeman/octopus djuŋa
Policeman gandjawan
Uncle ganj
Uncle/elderly relative njinjan
Chinaman guda/wurundibug
Aunt gudaŋ
Clever man/poisoner gunamundanj
Old woman gwandidj
Cousin landjagan
Bad woman murili
Bad man, a larrakin murudalinj
Deaf/obstinate person njarala-muga
Grandfather ŋabuŋ
Maternal grandmother & her sisters ŋagun
White boy wadjbaga
White man wadjbala
White woman wadjimin
Legendary little hairy people who lived in the mountains waligada
Young boy/teenager yaŋai
 
THE HUMAN BODY
 
Head guddagaŋ  gadagan
Hair of head dherruŋ  yaruŋ
Face mragin
Eye(s) migalaity  gundul
Nose nyigity  guŋ
Back of neck nhun 
neck biŋil
Throat guddity  dulidj
Ear(s) guri  djandjuŋ
Mouth dhambir  munda
Teeth yerra  njandug
Breast, female ŋumminyaŋ  miŋgun
Navel nyurra 
Belly bindhi 
Back beŋal 
Arm nhuruŋ 
Hand murraŋga 
Fingers yulu 
Finger-nails birril 
Thigh dhurra 
Knee ŋumuŋ 
Foot dyunna  djinaŋ
Heart gauar 
Blood dyiŋgi 
Fat bewan  bri
Bone wiak 
Penis dhun 
Testicles gurra 
Pubic Hair buruwarri 
Semen buruŋ 
Vulva binnan 
Anus dhula 
Excrement gunuŋ  gunuŋ
Urine dyuŋur  djuŋur
Venereal middyuŋ
Saliva/snot garuŋ
 
INANIMATE NATURE
 
Sun winyu  djaua
Moon kubbadaŋ  buriga
Stars dyurra 
Pleiades dyin-diŋ-gaŋ 
Clouds gurraŋ 
Sky mindyigari 
Thunder muruŋul  miribi
Lightning meup-meup  malub
Rain garrit  bana
Downpour/thunderstorm bulburai
Dew dyiŋidyirraŋ 
Frost dhugguru 
Water ŋadyuŋ  bubul/ŋadjuŋ
Waterhole bandria
Creek manaŋ
Running water, stream djuraŋ
Ground dhaura  biman
Dust dhuŋul 
Mud muruŋ 
Stone gurbuŋ  gurubuŋ
Magic stones gurugulaŋ
Sand dyardyar 
Charcoal murruŋga  dala
Ashes brinj
Light dhurrawaŋ 
Darkness buranya 
Heat gunnama 
Cold gurrita 
Dawn birrimbigaŋ 
East wind bulyaŋgaŋ 
West wind guraguma 
Whirlwind wiŋguraminya 
Pipeclay gubbity 
Red ochre gubur 
Fire kanbi  djigun/wada
Smoke muril  dumbug
Food, flesh ŋulli 
Food, vegetable dyaraban 
Flowers gamburra 
Day bural 
Night kagu 
Dusk dyirraŋgan 
Grass gurwai  nalug
Leaves dyirraŋ  gundigan
Eggs kubbugaŋ 
Egg gaban
Honey kauaŋgal  gwaŋgal
A liar kwigarak  djad-bulug
Pathway mura 
Camp ŋuru  gundji
Shadow of tree kumburu 
Shadow of man buak 
Summer winyuwaŋga 
Winter magarawaŋga
Bark of a tree dwad-dwad
Yesterday djiri-djiridj
Wood/sticks galbgal/wada
Snow gunuma
Poison gurigan
Money gurubuŋ
Kindling njari-njaran
Strong drink ŋadjuŋ
Evil magic ŋarib
Cadaver, dead thing yurugadj
 
MAMMALS
 
Koala gurabun or gula  dandial/ŋuraga
Dog mirri  mirigan
Possum wille wadjan
Kangaroo rat balbu  dambuluŋ
Kangaroo rat (bettong) djimuŋ
Native cat murugun  bindjuluŋ
Bandicoot mundawari  manjug
Small rat gunnimaŋ  bugila
Rock wallaby burrai 
Echidna burugun  gauaŋ / gauwatj
Kangaroo buru  ganjgruŋ
Platypus maluŋgaŋ  djamalaŋ
Flying squirrel baŋgu 
Ringtail opossum dyindan 
Bat ŋuddya-ŋuddyan
Wombat baŋadan/migundan
Rabbit bud
Water rat bud-bud
Sheep / jumbuck djambug
Horse yaraman
 
BIRDS
 
Birds, collectively budyan  budjan
Crow wagulan 
Kookaburra guginyal  guginjala
Curlew warabin 
Swan dyinyuk  gunjug
Eaglehawk mulleun 
Common magpie karrugaŋ 
Currawong dyirrigaŋ  djaruŋ-djaruŋ
Mopoke yuyu  gub-gug
Night owl binit-binit 
Rosella parrot bunduluk 
Common hawk walga 
Kingfisher diktigaŋ 
Peewee giliruk 
Plover bindirradirrik 
Crane galu  nilaŋgan
Pheasant dyagula 
Black cockatoo, small gaŋ-gaŋ 
Black cockatoo, large wamburuŋ 
Bower-bird dyara
Grey thrush djimaŋal
Tawny frogmouth djunuwidj
Wading bird — long legs djuruwidj
Black tailed waterhen gulburi
Mail bird (mythical) gurubulaŋ
Willy wagtail liga-ligal
 
FISHES
 
Perch dhinŋur 
Herring berrumbunnuŋ 
Eel yumba  galgun
Gudgeon budaŋ 
Black-fish wuggar mandja
 
REPTILES
 
Water iguana dhurrawarri 
Frog dyirrigurat 
River lizard biddyiwaŋ 
Tree goanna wirria  budalag
Sleepy lizard muggadhaŋ 
Small lizard bunburuŋ  djiralgal
Death adder muddyawit 
Turtle gudamaŋ 
Carpet snake wagur  djidjigan
Any snake mugga 
Brown snake wuruŋal  djuganj
Black snake dyirrabity 
Tiger snake berragundhaŋ 
Jew lizard nurruŋ 
Tree snake mulundyuluŋ
large lizard banburaŋ
 
INVERTEBRATES
 
Locust, large gulaŋulan 
Locust, small dyirribrit 
Mother louse guŋgal  ninj
head louse gadji
Nit of louse dyandiŋ 
Young lice maiadi 
House fly meŋa 
Bulldog ant bulbul 
Jumper ant dyambity 
Ant munduin
Maggot dhurraunda 
Centipede gururigaŋ 
Mussel bindugan
magic/multicoloured beetles ganina
Grubs, collectively (edible?) gauin  graŋ
Grubs, gum tree burruŋ 
Grub, river oak dyiguŋ 
Grub of the bogong moth mumugandi
Spider mara
 
TREES AND PLANTS
 
Any tree ŋulla 
Ti-tree mudda 
Wattle nummerak  gabira
Wattle – longifolia marigal
Pine buggumbul 
Oak dulwa 
Cherry-tree mummadya 
Gum-tree yerradhaŋ 
Yellow-box bargaŋ 
Honeysuckle dhulwa 
Ironbark thirriwirri 
Stringybark burin 
Bulrushes gummiuk gamjag
Reeds yarunga
White gum (e viminalis? rossii?) balug
Black salee (e stelulata) buguga
Candlebark (e rubida) djua
Snow gum waraganj
 
WEAPONS, UTENSILS, ETC
 
Tomahawk   mundubaŋ ŋambaranj
Koolamin guŋun 
Yamstick gaualaŋ 
Spear dyuin 
Spear lever womur 
Spear shield bimbiaŋ 
Waddy shield murga  ŋamal
Fighting club kudyeru 
Hunting club bundi 
Boomerang berrà 
Net bag goan  badjuŋ
Canoe mundaŋ 
Headband gamban 
Kilt burran
Blanket bandja
Boots, shoes, boot-prints bandjiwan
Clothes bidja
Tea/tealeaves buŋa
Unsweetened tea gurug
Potatoes burudan
Trousers danda
Bread daŋan
Hat dambanj
Sugar dugun
Small flat bark dish ŋaḍu
Meat ŋali
Yam dharaban  njamaŋ
 
ADJECTIVES
 
Alive mulaŋgari 
Dead burrakbaŋ  birug
Spirit birugbanj
Ghost mugan
Large buggarabaug 
Small nyerriguraŋ 
Tall or long bamir 
Big ŋuyuŋ / yaram
Low or short guŋur 
Good yedduŋ  yalaganj
Bad gudba  danaŋ
Red dhirrum dhirrum 
White duggurugurak  wadj?
Black buru-bura 
Mad gauaŋ 
Crazy yugi-yugaŋ 
Stubborn wambaruŋ  gadjaran
Valiant gurumbul 
Quick burrai 
Slow gunyan 
Strong yurwaŋ 
Afraid dyaui-dyauty 
Tired yurrity 
Sharp midyir-midyir 
Fat bewanbaŋ  bubulug
Lean / skinny ŋauatyba  garibal
Hot winyudha  ŋulma
Cold gurrit 
Angry yugo 
Sleepy guŋ-guŋ 
Glad waddhir 
Sorry ŋaralda 
Greedy merradhin 
Sick ger  bubil
Stinking buguŋ  buyuwa
Rotten ŋulu-ŋulug
Much guruŋ 
Little muiŋgaŋ  mumuŋ
Pregnant maliŋilimaŋ  bugmin
True gundyaina
Deaf barariŋ
Empty biman
Ugly bimbila/ŋaljan
Cheeky/bold biŋgidj/nurinj
Sticky bragbag
Dirty bridj-bridj/djiriridj/maḍaŋ-maḍaŋ
Dirty, covered in earth dinadj
Nice/beautiful damaradj
Very dura
Disobedient/fidgety buḍun-buḍun
Happy/flash djarimiŋ
Useless/silly/stupid guniriŋ
Idiot waŋan
Hungry njaban
 
VERBS
 
Die berak 
Eat dhaimbaliri  dambli
Drink wimbaliri  gulug
Sleep ŋambori  gabug
Stand dharri-iri 
Sit /stay ŋulla-iri  ŋalag
Talk dhuniai  bala-bala
Tell dhuniuŋ 
Walk yerrabi 
Run munni 
Bring munnagali 
Take mali  maŋgai
Make buŋi 
Break mudyat 
Chastise millai 
Beat ŋubi  darag-ŋambi
Arise badyi 
Fall down buggali 
See naŋi 
Look naii  dununag
stare dununalug
Hear ŋurrambai 
Listen waŋgirrali  njarala
Give yuŋgi 
Cook dyandai 
Steal gurraŋi  maŋgai
Request dyuŋgadyai 
Sing yuŋgaballi 
Weep, cry nyimali  gambawali
Blow, with breath bumbi 
Blow, as wind bunima 
Climb bui-i 
Conceal buddai 
Jump dyutbi  bib-bib
Laugh birrigai 
Scratch birradilli 
Tear buŋgur 
Forget walagi 
Do   buŋi
Send   iddyi
Suck bindi 
Swim yerra 
Fly yerra 
Bathe ŋaugi 
Search for gadi 
Spit dyugai 
Smell billai 
Bite burri  ŋaŋ
Play woggabaliri 
Touch or catch muŋga-iri 
Throw / pelt yerrambi  dug
Hit/ wound darag-ŋambi / dilginj
Spear/stab djug
Pitch wadhi 
Whistle windi 
Pretend kwigai 
Vomit garrugi  duruduradj
Dance wagi 
Dive burugi  djurug
Sting dyandi 
Hunt gadali 
To scent, as a dog gundali 
Drive dhurali 
Go /to go yerrabi  yarabi
Come munnagai 
Burn gunnami 
Chop gudbaiiri 
Feel burraŋiri
Sexual desire burundunnuŋ 
Copulation yaŋiliri 
Masturbation natymiliri 
splash dubul
roll one’s eyes djuŋgul
kill with magic stones gagari
kill with evil magic ŋaribi
to ‘sing’ someone gurugulaŋ
to keep quiet garug
to dream garawaŋa
to dribble njalanj
to fidget/move around ŋadjalanj
 
PHRASES
 
“come here” burbiyaliga
“you are staring at me” dununalugin
“hey” gugai
“shame”/”hey” guin
“you’ve got no shame” guin muga
“yes, alright” guli-gulaba
“someone is watching you” gundul-bidjali
“I’m going to hit this silly looking thing” [I’ll] dilginj waŋan guniriŋ
“no” not (negative adv and particle) muga
up, upwards njalaŋ
down, downwards njuluŋ
“whereabouts?” wirigara
“good job” wur
“look out!” yabiyaliga
 
PROPER NOUNS
 
name of mtn between delegate & orbost Guŋgura
a valley near Delegate (means ghost?) Mugan
tribe to south of Ngarigo, between Eden and Orbost Biḍawal
a sub tribe of the Biḍawal Daŋgiai
a female name Gunal

*Just the title “Victorian Languages” of this book speaks of the riches of the cultural tapestry which existed, and the nearly complete disjunction of this from what is the modern state of Victoria. The lateness of the survey is all too evident from the small number of natural speakers who were still alive when it was assembled in the 1960s. There are stories here of final speakers who died only days before contact with language researchers.

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symmetrical dreams

June 12th, 2013 — 12:51pm

Spoke to a philosopher yesterday, an interesting guy, with a quiet almost shy voice.. long pauses to think. I liked that. He’s trying to bring scientists and philosophers together – no easy feat. A lot of distrust on both sides he says. He spends three months every year in Oxford, a nice lifestyle..

Cold weekend, big frosts. We lit a bonfire and I looked at Saturn through the telescope, it was quite spectacular in the perfect still air, the 3.6mm lens just teasing out the atmosphere’s wobble. Imbibed rose’s mulled cider and fished foil wrapped potatoes from the fire.

This morning, after a mineralogy exam, I am a temporary storehouse of intimate knowledge on chain silicates.. phase diagrams.. fractional crystallisation etc.

Sitting in the lonsdale st roasters cafe afterwards.. ‘espresso dynamo grind’ (i think of an old poem) – read about the ‘screw’ theory of learning. How we return to subjects again and again, and each return we go a little deeper. ALso reading in an excellent book on optical mineralogy about symmetry in 3D – the screw and the inversion/rotation, the cube balanced on a corner – both have a certain aesthetic pull to them. I must investigate further.

symmetry_3d

A few nights ago I woke up after dreaming about swimming in grandpas & nanas pool. Deep and cool. The house was sold but we had left three pianos there to be picked up later. I met the new owner, he was refitting the downstairs ‘pool room’ but lots of grandpa’s Illyrian decorations were still up (they had been left there in the hurry of leaving) and he seemed to like them. As i awoke from the dream i thought of connections with greece (my study of it) and that part of the family. Also that mad rush to empty the house out after grandpa died, all the parts of it I remember. The paved patios cut out of rock, nanas gardens, the attic with the funny old orange tv (regretfully chucked on leaving), the huge staircase plunging down the centre of the house. A very strange layout, designed by grandpa.

I think about the family now. How the threads of genealogy flow through people and mix.. the trends. the flavours. the histories, passed on incompletely, imperfectly. something is lost but something new is created at each new link in the chain. walkers meet sekoranja.. strange fusion of exiled anglo and slavic purpose. then mix’d again.. with the blue hardy blood, the aussie benson first australian, the watt scot. Then again (with watt) into scarf and clarke.. the old nuclei is hatched and broken, a discarded house, families drift apart. the subjects become the objects, then the indirect objects, then they wink out altogether (into subconscious).

There is a dark weird version of tuggeranong that exists in my brain when i have these dreams. Feels a bit like a version set in the future, but it has a warped quality like reality redrawn on a chewed up piece of bubble gum. It stretches from cowley place down to kambah and then up into the mountains. It is always night.

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Orroral Tracking station

August 26th, 2012 — 12:37pm

I was talking the other day to old Roger, at a Canberra Speleological Society trip to Wee Jasper, who was telling me about his first job in Australia working at the Orroral tracking station. I have long thought it is a tragedy that Orroral and Honeysuckle creek tracking stations, which were such an interesting piece of local history, were both left to be vandalised before being bulldozed by the National Park Authorities in the 90s. Orroral was a little overshadowed by Honeysuckle creek’s role in the Apollo 11 landing, but still had an important job in tracking and communicating with passing satellites.

orroral tracking station 1969

Roger was there at the commissioning of the station. He said that all these boxes of electronic bits and pieces arrived from NASA with no instructions for how to put them together. There was one very large machine which sent a very accurate time signal based i think he said on some crystal inside.

There were three shifts of 8 hours each, about 12 people on each shift. There was also a kitchen and a couple of cooks, and for every shift they used to make a good meal, a roast leg of lamb and mint sauce for instance. Roger said it was a bit weird when you were on the night shift and had a meal like this at 3am. Orroral valley is a beautiful place, i can’t imagine how good it would be to work there, and to be doing such funky space stuff in the 60s as well.

Orroral tracking station opening – Rog is there somewhere. (image courtesy http://www.honeysucklecreek.net )

Rog said they had to send messages to military satellites as well as scientific ones. One funny story he told was of a command that had to be sent to a satellite that was carrying a box of fruit flies as part of a scientific experiment on the effects of cosmic rays in space. Anyway the command was for the satellite to drop the box of flies and there was a plane waiting flying around somewhere to pick it up. Well anyway to send the command to the satellite, a punch card had to be inserted into a computer. Unfortunately the operator at Ororral inserted it the wrong way around, and by the time he realised his error, and put it back in the correct way, the satellite had moved on a couple of hundred kilometres. So no-one ever found the box of fruit flies.

2 comments » | canberra history, space

ANU start day

July 23rd, 2012 — 7:21am

Having a coffee before my first Earth sciences lecture, I watch some workman cutting up bike racks with a battery powered angle grinder and hacksaw. The sulphry burnt smell of the blade cutting through steel reminds me of dad’s workshop and the pipe saw, a strangely pleasant smoke I have inhaled since earliest memory, awash now in nostalgia. I remember that Dad (and uncle Tom) laid some of the concrete around Union Court back in the 70’s, as well as large areas of pavement and hot water conduits at the then Canberra College of Advanced Education (now University of Canberra).

Later, crossing Sullivan’s creek on stepping stones I wonder how often my grandad (Andy Watt) tramped over those same stones. He ran the ANU maintenance office for many years, and dad has lots of stories of visits to the uni at odd times of night to fix broken drains and things. In once accident, someone had walked through a glass wall or door at Bruce Hall and the floor was awash with huge quantities of blood which had to be mopped up. He was friendly with the academics and was always amazed at their dedication, working late and through christmas day. He loved the equipment in the physics workshop particularly a huge lathe which came from the Krupps armaments factory after the war.

Grandad brought home all sorts of interesting things from the ANU, I think we have the original gates to Canberra house rusting out in the paddock at home, and a ladder and a solidly built hand cranked winch from the maintenance depot. Many of the poplars around the creek are a very late turning variety, surplus from some researchers breeding experiment, and many of the elms around the farm are ANU stock. Whenever I see the fish ponds at University house or the Chancellery I also think of Andy as he bred goldfish and we had lots of ponds with fish around the farm. In fact the last instruction he ever gave me was to make sure I remembered to feed the fish and clean their tank. I wonder if the fish at ANU are still Andy’s fish (we still have generations of his fish in the pond at home too).

Anyway I’m the first of us to come here as a student, and all this resonates with me now. Only the chances of time brought us here to do different things – in another 20 years I wonder if I would be able to get in on my slightly marginal high school scores, or if it would be at all affordable to do so. But I enjoyed the nice moment of continuity in familiar echoes – amongst a day of new things this morning – starting my BA/BSc degree.

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I love the Aboriginal Tent Embassy

January 27th, 2012 — 6:47am

The Australian media somehow isn’t seeing the true significance of yesterday’s skirmish outside The Lobby restaurant following Tony Abott’s ignorant comments about the significance of the Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra. I unfortunately have no real connections to the Aboriginal community here. But only last year on a cool autumn morning I was walking through the rose gardens, when I caught a whisper of smoke on the air from a campfire burning over in front of old parliament house. It reminded me of the bush, it reminded me of the Australia that exists beyond the monoliths of the parliamentary triangle, that existed on this spot for millenia, and I was immensely grateful for it then.

It is terrible that there can be no recognition among people like Tony Abbott of the importance of the ongoing protest that has been occuring at this spot. It is symbolic of the whole state of affairs that still exists with the role of Aboriginal people in Australia. I thought last Autumn – why don’t Aboriginal people have a permanent home here in Canberra, why do they have to keep on with this temporary place? But perhaps by asking that question I am shewing how out of touch I am with the heart of the issues. Whatever the solution is, I hope that it does not put out the fires that drift their aromatic smoke among the rosebushes on the lawns of parliament. It seems to be the only signature of humane occupation that exists in Canberra.

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John Gale

July 24th, 2007 — 12:37pm

Everyone who lives in Canberra should know about John Gale, who was the editor and founder of the Queanbeyan age in the second half of the 19th century, and whose pamphlet “Dalgety or Canberra – Which?” probably clinched the decision of the panel who were in charge of deciding where to put Australia’s new capital city.

It makes me smile a bit to read Mr Gale’s hyperbole about the Canberra site – “the meat, milk, butter, grapes, apples, potatoes, and other fruits and rootcrops raised or grown in the surrounding district cannot be surpassed in any part of Australia” he says, and goes on to claim that Canberra’s Mt Coree is the “sister mountain to Kosciusco” and that “no more expansive, no more sublime view is there anywhere in New South Wales” than from the slopes of this fairly unremarkable mountain in the northern Brindabellas (I’ll admit i’ve never been there).

Gale actually twists the truth in this section of comparing mountains, as apart from the flowery language about Canberra’s own “hoary giants” such as Mt Coree and Mt Tennant, he says that Canberra is only twice as far (80 miles) from Mt Kosciusko (Australia’s highest mountain) as Dalgety is. But actually Kosciusko is over 90 miles to Canberra, as the crow flies, and Dalgety is only about 30 miles away. Now Dalghety might not be the most exciting place but its one unique claim is that it has the snow only an hour away, and in the other direction just two hours away is Eden, one of the most beautiful remote parts of the South Coast.

Dalgety is also much nearer to half way between Melbourne and Sydney, which was the original reason for placing a capital in this region. Canberra is closer to Sydney than Melbourne, and the mountains to the south of it make a circuitous route necessary when driving to Melbourne, which takes 9 hours against 3 hours to Sydney (on modern roads). There was already a train link to nearby Cooma at the time of the decision, but Dalgety’s remoteness to Sydney was counted as a factor against it by some influential people of the day, and it is likely that Gale’s pamphlet gave an excuse for the Sydney prejudice.

There is no doubt that Canberra is built in a pleasant place, with the Brindabellas and the Murrumbidgee running alongside, but I often feel that Dalgety would have been the more interesting option for Australia. Gale painted a rose tinted vision of Canberra as I suppose he imagined that it would benefit Queanbeyan to have the capital next door, but Queanbeyan is unloved by its new neighbour. Somehow Canberra is a bit horrified of Queanbeyan, and its origins in the squabbles of a forgotten era. But Queanbeyan can be satisfied with its role in changing Australia’s history, for without John Gale’s idiosyncratic pamphlet, Canberra certainly wouldn’t be where it is.

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